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Sunday, July 15, 2012

Role of SAP End Users

What is the Difference between Consultant & End users?
SAP consultant role is to build the system, changes & modification/updating currently installed SAP system for the end users.
SAP End users only use the SAP system just to fetch some info, or to create new information. So an end user is just using the final product which it is meant for and consultant design the product/updating it and modifying it.
The roles and responsibilities of end users is working in easy access menu they will not have authorizations of using IMG settings .
Roles and Responsibilities of End User:

Using the software at the end or after the implementation is an End User.
In sap HR, we do come across entire Org Management creation by an end user after the Personnel structure is created. An
OM object like creation of Org Unit means functional area or department, creation Job and Position and its occupancy is with in the limits of an end-user.

Initially the OM is created by sap consultant. In course of time if a new department is created at the client, this has to be created by the end-user rather than depending up on the implementer... similarly new job and position are created by the end-user. The entire gamut OM depends upon the end-user.
End user runs periodical payroll and Ensures the validity of the Time schedules (Work Schedules) of each employee, in the easy access menu.
Any problems that the end-user comes across during the utilization of sap ...that will reach as ticket to the support team

Role of SAP Consultant In Testing

Role of SAP Consultant In Testing

Testing : the core team members along with endusers will test whether the postings done in SAP is resulting as per the requirements of the organisation. They will test whether the output documents such as purchase order, invoice document are printed in the required format and showing the correct data.
Unit testing is refer to the module which are going to implement. SD, MM, FICO etc. there will be test script based on that testing will be performed.

1. What is the role of Consultant in Testing while implementing the project?
Testing : the core team members along with end-users will test whether the postings done in SAP is resulting as per the requirements of the organization. They will test whether the output documents such as purchase order, invoice document are printed in the required format and showing the correct data.
2. What is Unit testing and Integration Testing?

Unit testing is referred to the module which is going to be implemented. SD, MM, FICO etc. there will be test script based on that testing will be performed.
Integration testing will be cross the modules. MM-SD-FICO for example. Integration testing is also called SIT (System integration testing)

Testing mathologies and types: there are 6 types of testing:

1. Unit Testing
2. System Testing
3. System Integration security Testing
4. Performance Testing
5. User Acceptance testing
6. Regression Testing

Unit testing is done in bits and pieces. Like e.g. in SD standard order cycle; we do have 1-create order, then 2-delivery, then 3-transfer order, then 4-PGI and then 5-Invoice. So we will be testing 1,2,3,4 and 5 separately alone one by one using test cases and test data. We will not be looking and checking/testing any integration between order and delivery; delivery and TO; TO and PGI and then invoice.

System testing you will be testing the full cycle with it's integration
, and you will be testing using test cases which give a full cyclic test from order to invoice.Security testing you will be testing different roles and functionalities and will check and signoff.Performance testing is refered to as how much time / second will take to perform some actions, like e.g. PGI. If BPP definition says 5 seconds for PGI then it should be 5 and not 6 second. Usually it is done using software.Regression testing is referred to a test which verifies that some new configuration doesn’t adversely impact existing functionality. This will be done on each phase of testing.User Acceptance Testing: Refers to Customer testing. The UAT will be performed through the execution of predefined business scenarios, which combine various business processes. The user test model is comprised of a sub-set of system integration test cases.

software are used during testing. Most commonly used is

Test Director: which is used to record requirement, preparing test plan and then recording the progress. We will be incorporating defects that are coming during these testings using different test cases.
Mercury Load Runner: is used for performance testing. This is an automatic tool.

What does the following terms means:
- Technical Unit Testing
- Functional Unit Testing
- IntegrationTesting
- Volume Testing
- Parallel Testing?
Technical Unit Testing= Test of some technical development such as a user exit, custom program, or interface. the test usually consists of a test data set that is processed according to the new program. A successful test only proves the developed code works and that it performed the process as designed.

Functional Unit Testing= Test of configuration, system settings or a custom development (it may follow the technical unit testing) These usually use actual data or data that is masked but essentially the same as a real data set. A successful test shows that the development or configuration works as designed and the data is accurate as a result.

IntegrationTesting= Testing a process, development or configuration within the context of any other functions that the process, development or functionality will touch or integrate . The test should examine all data involved across all modules and any data indirectly affected. A successful test indicates that the processes work as designed and integrate with other functions without causing any problems in any integrated areas.

Volume Testing= testing a full data set that is either actual or masked to insure that the entire volume does cause system problems such as network transmission problems, system resources issues, or any systemic problem, A successful test indicates that the processes will not slow or crash the system due to a full data set being utilized.

Parallel Testing= Testing the new system or processes with a complete data set while running the same processes in the legacy system. A successful test will show identical results when both the legacy system and new system results are compared.
What kind of testing is carried out in testing server?

1. Individual Testing (Individually which we've created)
2. Regressive Testing (Entire Process)
3. Integration Testing (Along with other integrated modules)

The 3 types of testing is as follows:-
1. Unit testing (where an individual process relevant to a SD or MM etc is tested)
2. Integration testing (where a process is tested that cuts across all areas of SAP).
3. Stress testing (where lots of transactions are run to see if the system can handle the data)

Role of a SAP Functional Consultant

What are the differences between a functional and business consultant?

The difference between Functional consultant and Business consultant are as follows:
1) A funcitonal consultant is able to configure the system unlike business consultant.
2) Functional consultant know more about business process unlike Business consultant.
3) A business consultant will bring business process knowledge and provide it to functional consultant who in turn used this knowledge to configure the system.
4) Functional consultant has more configuration knolwledge then Business consultant.

The responsibilities of a support consultant are:

- Primarily responsible for Handling tickets and application support to the endusers
- When an issue comes diagnose, analyse and solve the issue
- Responsible for any enhancements
- Writing functional specs and interacting with Abapers to develop any user exits
- Training the end users and preparing end user training material

Role of a Functional Consultant in an End To End Implementation

When you talk about the role of a Functional consultant in an end to end implementation, I think it won't be possible for me or anybody to define everything but I will try to summarize it:
1. Functional consultant is expected to generate knowledge about the current business process, design current business flows, study current business processes and its complication, in all we can say getting through with current business setup. Flow diagrams and DFD are prepared, most of the time in Vision format, all this forms the part of AS IS document.
2. Everything configured has to be documented as per their categories in the form of predefined templates, these have to be then approved by the team leads or who ever the consultant is reporting to.
3. Mapping and GAP analysis is done for each module, I have seen people defining integration after mapping, gap analysis and configuration is done, but as per my experience in implementation, it is a simultaneous process.
4. Before starting configuring future business processes in SAP, the DFD/ERD are prepared, this documentation is called TO BE, which can be also siad as the result of mapping and gap analysis.
5. Sometimes Functional consultants are also expected to prepare test scripts for testing the configured scenarios.
6. End user manual and user training is also expected from F.Consultants.
The project normally starts off with a Kick off meeting in which the team size, team members, reporting system, responsibilities, duties, methodlogy, dates and schedules, working hours which have been predicided are formally defined.
ASAP, it won't be possible for me to explain it here, but all I can tell you about it is that it is SAP standard implementation methodology, which SAP prescribes but is not mandatory for any company to follow, but recommended to follow the same.

Five Phases of ASAP methodlogy.
Phase 1: Project Preparation - The purpose of this phase is to provide initial planning and preparation for your SAP project.
Phase 2: Business Blueprint - The purpose of this phase is to achieve a common understanding of how the company intends to run its business within the SAP System. The result is the Business Blueprint, a detailed documentation of the results gathered during requirements workshops. The Business Blueprint document represents the business process requirements of the company. It is the agreed statement of how the company intends to run its business within the SAP System.
Phase 3: Realization - The purpose of this phase is to implement all the business process requirements based on the Business Blueprint. The system configuration methodology is provided in two work packages: Baseline (major scope); and Final configuration (remaining scope).
Phase 4: Final Preparation - The purpose of this phase is to complete the final preparation (including testing, end user training, system management and cutover activities) to finalize your readiness to go live. The Final Preparation phase also serves to resolve all critical open issues. On successful completion of this phase, you are ready to run your business in your live SAP System.
Phase 5: Go Live and Support - The purpose of this phase is to move from a project-oriented, pre-production environment to live production operation.
Some additional Infomation on ASAP methodology:
Phase 1 - Project Preparation
Change Charter - Goals and objectives of Organizational Changen Management
Project Plan - This is a first cut focusing on milestones andn Work Packages; details to come.
Scope - Sets the initial definition of then project; input from sales cycle.
Project Team Organization - Sets the whon of the project: Standards and Procedures - Sets the why and how of the project.
Phase 2 - Business Blueprint - Requirements reviewed for each SAP Reference Structure item and defined using CI Templates (in the Q and Adb). Business Blueprint - This is the output of the Q and Adb and is the key document for Phase 3.
Phase 3 - Realization - Master Lists - Define business scenarios and R/3 transactions to be realized in the system. BPP - Business Process Procedures representing R/3 transactions; used for unit testing and documentation. Planning - Defines how the configuration will be done and how it will be tested. Development Programs - Provides details of the external programming requirements. EU Training Material - End User training material and process documentation.
Phase 4 - Final Preparation Stress and Volume Tests - Plans for confirming the production hardware's capabilities
Cutover Plan - The details of how to move to the production environment and go live
Conduct End User Training - Delivery of the necessary levels of R/3 End User training prior to going live
Phase 5 - Go Live and Support: Ensuring system performance through SAP monitoring and feedback.